Do the US Courts offer information?

Yes. The Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts on behalf of the Federal Judiciary maintains a web site with useful information. You can find them here. www.uscourts.gov/services-forms/bankruptcy 

What is the Virginia Homestead Exemption?

The homestead exemption is an exemption that must be claimed. Outside of bankruptcy, you claim the exemption by filing a homestead deed in the courthouse of the city or county where you live. It is not a deed of sale such a the deed you get when you buy a home. An example can be found at http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?000+cod+34-14.  Also see my page on the Homestead exemption.